නවලිය - වසර 38 ක් ශ්‍රී ලංකික බුද්ධිමත් කාන්තාවන්ගේ තෝරා ගැනීම

සතියේ විශේෂාංග

ldnksl / ridhksl fmdfydr o?


ffjoH úoHd;aul myod§u'''


wdydr iqrlaIs;;dj iy ñ:Hdj'''


yß; f.dú;ek ms<sn| wdlD;sh Y%S ,xldfõ lDIsl¾udka;hg wdfoaY lsÍfï ixl,amh ldf,daÑ; jqK;a th mdol lr .;a ñ;Hdjka iy tys mj;sk i;H;djka fudkjdo'''@ yß; f.dú;ek ms<sn| ixl,amh uq,a lr f.k úoaj;a jD;a;slhkaf.a ix.uh úiska idlÉPdjla meje;a jQ w;r thg fld<U úYajúoHd,fha ffjoH mSGfha uydpd¾h iy uyck fi!LH ms<sn|j wdishdkq meis*sla wOHhk ixiofha Wm iNdm;s uydpd¾h bkaÈl lreKd;s,l" fmardfoKsh úYajúoHd,fha uydpd¾h wd¾' tia O¾u;s,l iy reyqK úYajúoHd,fha úY%dñl wdpd¾h ,hk,a kq.,shoao hk wh iyNd.S jQy'


Y%S ,xldj iïnkaOfhka jiúi ke;s f.dú;ekla .ek l;d lsÍfï§ th f.dúìfï isg wdydr fïihg muKla fkdj kej; mdúÉÑ lsÍu olajd jQ È.= ls%hdj,shla' fuu iemhqï odufha fld;ekl fyda isÿjk je/oao" m%udoh fyda wksis l%ufõohka ksid wdydrhl mj;sk iqrlaIs;;dj ì| jeàug bv ;sfnkjd' kuq;a fï jkúg wdydr iemhqï oduh uq,a lr f.k úúO ñ;Hdjka f.dvkeÕS ;sfnkjd' fï ms<sn|j woyia bÈßm;a lrkafka fld<U úYaajúoHd,fha ffjoH mSGfha uydpd¾h iy uyck fi!LHh i|yd wdishdj meis*sla wOHhk ixiofha Wm iNdm;s bkaÈl lreKd;s,l uy;dhs'


wdydr iqrlaIs;;dj .ek l;d lsÍfï§ th tla wdydrhla uq,a lr f.k fyda wdydr iemhqï odufha tla wjia:djla muKla iSud lr f.k idlÉPd lsÍu wmyiqhs' wdydr iqrlaIs;;dj .ek meyeÈ,s ks¾jpkh b;d ir,j i|yka lf<d;a wdydr odufha§ fnda. j.dj" wiajkq fk<Su" m%jdykh yd .nvd lsÍu" miq ixrlaIKh" wf,ú lsÍu" ilia lsÍu" msiSu" msisk ,o wdydr .nvd lsÍu iy kej; ilia lsÍu olajd jQ È.= ls%hdodufha iEu wjia:djlau wdjrKh úh hq;=hs' fï odufha tla wjia:djla fyda ì| jegqfKd;a t;ek wdrlaIs; wdydr iemhqï oduhla .ek wmg iy;sl ùug wmyiqhs'


wdydr u.ska ,nk fmdaIKh ñksidf.a meje;afï ;SrKd;aul idOlhla' wdydr ixialD;sfha mj;akd hï hï wvqmdvq u; úúO frda. ;;a;ajhka olakg ,efnkjd' fmdaIK W!k;djka ksid ukaofmdaIKh" rla;ySk;dj" laIqø fmdaIl W!k;djh jf.au wdydr mßfNdackfha jerÈ rgdjka ksid ;rndrej" wê nr jeks ;;a;ajhka olakg ,efnkjd'


wdydr iqrlaIs;;dj iuÕ iïnkaO ñ:Hdjka

² ngysr ±kqu wfma rgg .e<fmkafka keye'''

±kqu ;=< fmrÈ. iy wmrÈ. hehs fjkialï keye' ±kqu Èk Èk w¿;a fjkjd' úoHd;aul l%u mßkduh fjkjd' È.= b;sydihla we;s wfma rgg ngysr oekqu u; hefmkak wjYH keye' ta ksid wmrÈ. ±kqu fõjd fmrÈ. ±kqu fõjd úoHd;aul ;;a;ajhka bÈßfha lDIsl¾uhg ys;lr kï ta fjkqfjka wkq.; úh hq;=hs'


² ldnksl f.dú;efkka wdydr iqrlaIs;;djh ;yjqre  l< yel''

lDIs fnda. j.dfõ§ lDIs ridhkhka fjkqjg ldnksl fmdfydr Ndú; l<;a wmg tu wdydrh iqrlaIs; njg iy;sl ùug yelshdjla keye' wdydr odufha§  fnda. j.dj" wiajkq fk<Su" m%jdykh yd .nvd lsÍu" miq ixrlaIKh" wf,ú lsÍu" ilia lsÍu" msiSu" msisk ,o wdydr .nvd lsÍu iy kej; ilia lsÍu jeks È.= ls%hdj,sfha§ wdydrfha iqrlaIs; nj iy;sl úh hq;=hs'


² ridhkhka Ndú; fkdlf<d;a wfma wdydr fi!LHdrlaIs;hs'''

ridhkhka Ndú; lsÍu lDIsl¾uhg fukau fi!LH lafI;%hg;a fhdod .ekSu isÿ fjkjd' kuq;a tys ud;%dj úfYaIhs' fmksis,ska jeks ridhkhla T!Iëh m%;sldrhla f,i fhdod .ekSfï§ ud;%dj jeo.;a' th jeä ud;%djla fhdod .;fyd;a hym;g jvd isÿ fjkafka whym;la' lDIsld¾ñl lghq;=j,§;a fuh idOdrKhs' m%udKhg jvd ridhkhka fhdod .ekSu ksid wdydrhl iqrlaIs; nj wysñ fjkak mq¨jks'


² ldnksl ksIamdok ms<sldldrl fkdfõ'

fidndoyfï ksIamdok ms<sldldrl fkdjk njg wfma ms<s.eksula ;snqK;a fhda.H fkdjk mßÈ isÿ lrk lDIssld¾ñl ls%hdj,sh ksid ms<sldldrlhkag ksrdjrKh ùfï wjodkï ;sfnkjd' iQ¾h lsrK u.ska ksl=;ajk mdrcïnq, lsrKhkag ksrdjrKh ùu" Mtcotoxin, Aflatoxin jeks YdL úi ixfhda. iy ìïu,a jeks wdydrj, we;s úi ridhkhka ys;a ms<sldldrl wvx.= úh yelshs'


² ldnksl fmdfydr fh¥ ksIamdok lDIs ridhkhka fh¥ ksIamdokhkag jvd wdrlaIs;hs'

Tn tfia is;==j;a ldnksl fmdfydr ksIamdokh lsÍu fjkqfjka wkq.ukh lrkafka ffcj úoHd;aul ls%hdj,shla' tys§ ldnksl fukau wldnksl ixfhda. fhdod .kakjd' uyd mßudK jyfhka ldnksl fmdfydr ksIamdokh lsÍfï§ fuu wldnksl ixfhda. jeä jYfhka fhdod .kakd w;r tys hï kshdukhla isÿ ùu wjYH fjkjd'


² foaYSh wdydrj,g jvd wdkhkh lrk wdydr iqrlaIs;hs'

kuq;a úúO wOHhkhkaj,§ fmkS .sh wkaoug foaYSh wdydr fnda.j,g;a jvd wdkhksl fnda. j¾.j, wdydrhg kqiqÿiq úi ixfhda. y÷kdf.k ;sfnkjd'


² wfma iïm%odhsl wdydr ixialD;sh fi!LHdrlaIs;hs'

fuys Okd;aul me;a;la ;sfnkjd' kuq;a wdydr ms<sn|j iïm%odhka ld,h;a iuÕ fjkia fjkjd' wo jkúg wfma rfÜ fndfyda fokdf.wdydr rgdj ldfndayhsfâ%g u; mokï ù ;sfnk w;r t<j¿ iy m,;=re wdydrhg .ekSfï m%jK;djh m%;sY;hl neõ m¾fhaIK jd¾;d u.ska fmkajd § ;sfnkjd'


mqoa.,fhl=f.fi!LHdrlaIs; Ôjk rgdjla mj;ajd .ekSug kï t<j¿ iy m,;=re jeä jYfhka wdydrhg .; hq;=hs' YÍr ialkaO o¾Ylh ksis mßÈ mj;ajd .ekSug jf.au reêr.; iSks uÜgu hym;a mßÈ mj;ajd .ekSug t<j¿ iy m,;=re jeä jYfhka wdydrhg .; hq;= fjkjd'tfia kï fuu ñ;Hdjka iy i;Hh w;r foda,kh jk lDIsl¾udka;h ;=< wdydr iemhqï odufha iqrlaIs;;dj f.dvkÕd .ekSug kï wkq.ukh l< yels l%ufõo folla ;sfnkjd'


ridhksl fmdfydr kshdukh lsÍu'''

ldnksl fmdfydr ms<sn| ixl,amh f.dú;ekg Ndú; lr .ekSu ms<sn| ixl,amh b;d hym;a' tfy;a fuh ksis l%ufõohlg isÿ úh hq;=hs' ta jf.au f.dú;ekg l%udkql+,j ldnksl fmdfydr fhdod .ekSu ms<sn|j úfYaI{ ±kqu ,nd §u iy ldnksl fmdfydr ksIamdok ls%hj,sfha§ ta ms<sn|j jQ m%ñ;ska kshdukh úh hq;=hs'


fmdfydr ms<sn| ixl,amh f,dalhg y÷kajd §u'''

fmardfoKsh úYajúoHd,fha uydpd¾h wd¾' tia O¾u;s,l


lDIsld¾ñl fnda. j.djl ld,dka;rhla mqrd isÿ jkúg mfia fmdfydr ySk ùu isÿ fõ' tjeks ;;a;ajhl§ fnda.h j¾Okhg iy wiajekak ,nd§fï .eg¨ we;s jk ksid wysñ jk fmdfydr ndysrj lDIsld¾ñl fnda. j.djg ,nd§u wjYH neõ c¾uka cd;sl úoHd{fhl= jk Justus von Liebig úiska y÷kajd fok ,§' YdLhl meje;au fjkqfjka w;HjYH uQ, øjH 18 la ;sfnkjd' ta w;ßka khsg%cka" fmdiafmaÜ iy fmdgEishï jvd;au wjYHhs' Justus von Liebig kshuh wkqj YdLhla wvqu fmdaIK ;;a;ajhla hgf;a j¾Okh jk w;r tys§ ,efnk fmdfydr ldnksl fyda ridhksl hk idOlhl n,mEula keye'


lDIsld¾ñl lghq;=j,§ Ndú; lrk wdkhksl ridhksl fmdfydr

Y%s ,xld m%ñ;s ld¾hdxYhg wkqj wdkhksl ridhk fmdfydrj, wka;¾.; úh yels wys;lr ridhkhka PTTEs (potentially toxic trace elements)

úi ridhkh     m%;sY;h

f,â                     0'1

leâñhï                3

wdiksla             0'1 - 25

fl%dañhï             3 - 50

riÈh              0'1 - 0'3


Y%S ,xld m%ñ;s ld¾hdxYhg wkqj wdkhksl >k fmdfydrj, wka;¾.; úh yels wys;lr ridhkhka PTTEs (potentially toxic trace elements) iÔú laIqø Ôúka ke;'$f,â 30$leâñhï 1'5-$wdiksla 3$ fl%dañhï 50$ riÈh 0'6 $ m%;sÔjl wjfYaI$ ldnksl øjH$ laIqqø ma,diaála$ khsg%ckSh wjfYaI


ridhksl fmdfydr Ndú;fha fi!LH yd mdßißl .eg¿

m<sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h ksid wkqrdOmqr" fmdf<dkakrej jeks m%foaYj,ska jl=.vq frda.Ska nyq,j jd¾;d jk njg jQ ixisoaêh iuÕ úoHd;aul ;yjqre úula ke;ehs ±ka fmkS f.dia ;sfnkjd' fuu ksoka.; jl=.vq frda.h we;s ùug leâñhï iy TSP (Triple super phosphate & j, wvx.= wdiksla w;r iïnkaO;djla ke;s neõ my; wOHhkhka u.ska fmkajd § ;sfnkjd' Mcdonough iy ;j;a wh  ( 2020 ) kdkdhlaldr ^ 2019 & Trace elements medicine bio iÕrdj'

mdßißl fya;=

ridhk fmdfydrj, wka;¾. fmdiamria ksid c,h iy t<j¿ iqfmdaIkh ùu' ^Èhdkdhl iy ùriqßh 1986 Enviormental studies 1987 vol.30Liyanage et al2000 Nat/science SL 28 (2) ) khsg%ckSh fmdfydr ksid mi wdï,sl fõ' fvd,uhsÜ fhdod .ekSfuka kej;;a h:d ;;a;ajhg m;a lr .ekSfï yelshdj ;sfnkjd'

ldnksl fmdfydr muKla fhdod .ekSu wiajekakg we;s lrk n,mEu

lDIsld¾ñl lghq;=j,§ ridhksl fmdfydr Ndú;h tlajru kj;d ±óu myiq ke;' f,dalfha ±kgu;a ldnksl j.dj isÿ lrk rgj,a mjd ta fjkqfjka È.= ld,hla ,nd f.k ;sfí' tfukau iïmQ¾K jYfhkau ldnksl j.djlg fhduq jqKq rgj,a ;ju;a ke; id¾:l ldnksl j.djlg fhduq jqKq rgj,a mjd ;ju;a ldnksl j.dj fjkqfjka fhdod f.k 4] la jeks hï m%;sY;hla muKs' tfukau furg isÿ lrk ,o úúO wOHhkhka u.ska mjd fmkajd fokafka ldnksl fmdfydr muKla Ndú; lsÍfuka wiajekak my< .sh;a ldnksl iy ridhksl fmdfydr m%ñ;shlska ixfhda. lr .ekSfuka id¾:l wiajekakla ,nd .; yels njhs'


ldnksl fmdfydr ilia lrk l%ufõoh'''

uyd mßudK j.djl§ ;ukaf.a f.dúìfï jmißhg wjYH ldnksl fmdfydr wod< mßY%fha§ ksIamdokh lsÍug isÿ fjkjd' kuq;a ldnksl fmdfydr ilia lrk l%ufõoh iy fhdod .kakd wuqøjH ms<sn|j jeä wjOdkhla fhduq lsÍu wjYHhs' ksis l<ukdlrKhla fkdjqfKd;a idhksl wmøjH" bf,lafg%dksl WmlrK mjd we;s le<s li, fhdod .ekSug mq¨jks' fïjdfha wka;¾.; ner f,day mig tl;= ùu ksid ridhksl fmdfydr Ndú; lsÍug;a jvd ydkshla isÿ fjkak mq¨jks'


,xldfõ mfia ;;a;ajh úúOhs' m%Odk jYfhka we;af;a je,s iy f,dï mila' c,h ord .ekSfï yelshdj b;d wvqhs' mfia PH wdï,sl;djh by,hs' ta jf.au mfia fmdaIl ord .ekSfï yelshdj wvq ugÜul mj;skjd' ta ksid ldnksl fmdfydr Ndú;fha§ fuu mdxY= ;;a;ajh .ek jeä ie,ls,a,la ±laùu wjYHhs'

ldnksl f.dú;ek fj; fhduq ùu tl /hlska l< yels ld¾hhla fkdfõ'

² ridhksl fmdfydr fjkqfjka f.dúhka fj; ,nd ÿka fmdfydr iykdOdrh tlajru lmamdÿ lsÍu fjkqjg ldnksl fmdfyd r m%udKj;a fia ksIamdokh lrk f;la fmdfydr ,nd .ekSfï ksis l%ufõohla ilia lsÍu'

² ldnksl fmdfydr ,nd .ekSfï yelshdj f.dú fCIa;%fha isák iEu f.dú uyf;l=gu yelshdj ,efnk fia l%ufõohka we;s lsÍu'ldnksl fmdfydr ksIamdokhg wjYH wuqøjH ,nd .ekSfï myiqj we;s lsÍu'

² wkd.; f.dú;ek fjkqfjka wjYH ldnksl fmdfydr l,a ;nd iQodkï lsÍu'

² fmdfydr ksIamdokh fjkqfjka fhdod .kakd wuqøjH' wkqmd;h kshdukh lsÍu'


m<sfndaOkdYl Ndú;h

reyqK úYajúoHd,fha úY%dñl wdpd¾h ,hk,a kq.,shoao


m<sfndaOkdYlhla f,i ye¢kafjkafka j.d lrk fnda. u; ffcj úoHd;aul ydkshla we;s lrk ^YdL" i;aj" È,Sr" nelaàßhd" ffjri" fjk;a& Ôúkah' ta ksid fuu m<sfndaOlhka úiska we;s lrk ydksh je<elaùug" md,kh lsÍug" úkdY lsÍug fyda wju lsÍug fhdod .kakd ridhk øjH ixfhda.hla fyda ixfhda. ñY%Khla m<sfndaOkdYl f,i ye|skafõ' ta wkqj m<sfndaOkdYl j¾. lSmhlg fnokak mq¨jks' È,srkdYl (Fungicide)  lDñ kdYl^ insecticide)" j,a kdYl ^ Herbicide &" uhsgd kdYl ^ Miticide & iy mKqkdYl f,ihs' ^ Namaticide) tfukau by; m<sfndaOkdYl ridhkhka wkqj fldgia lSmhlg fnod olajkak mq¨jks'

wldnksl iajNdúl ^ is,sld laIqø Ôúka ( diatom earth )

wldnksl lD;su formulate (S/ Cu )

ldnksl iajNdúl - YdL iy i;aj ksiaidrK

ldnksl lD;su DDT $ deltamethrin

ffcj m<sfndaOkdYl-

laIqøÔj - Trichoderma/Bouveria/virñ

mrfmdaIs; -Trichogremma

úf,damShka - óueiaika" f,aä n¾â l=reñkshka

ji úi f.dú;ekla .ek l;d lrkjd kï ta yd iudk m%uqL;djla m,sfndaOkdYl fhdod .ekSu fjkqfjkq;a ,nd §u jeo.;a'


;j;a Okd;aul f;dr;=rla'''

f.dú;eka lghq;=j,§ ridhk m,sfndaO wmkhkh ;=< ,xldj b;du my<ska isák rgla' Ökh" wefußldj jeks rgj,a jd¾Islj fylaghdrhlg fhdok m<sfndaO 13'1 ] la jeks by< ;ekl ;sìh§ Ys% ,xldfõ Bg idfmalaIj n,k úg f.dú;ek fjkqfjka m,sfndaOkdYl fhdod .ekSu 0'7 l w.hl mj;skjd' ta jf.au f,dal fi!LH ixúOdkh úiska lDIs ridhkhka úi wkqj j¾. lr ;sfnkjd' ta ,ehsia;=j wkqj;a Y%S ,xldj Ndú; lrkafka wvq úi ixfhda. iys; lDIs ridhkhka ùu;a i;=gg lreKla '

² wdydr iqrlaIs;;djhg isÿjk ydksh wju lr .ekSug .; yels mshjr

² mdßißl ys;ldó taldnoaO m,sfndaO md,k l%u ixj¾Okh lsÍu'

² mdrïmßl ±kqu iy mßirys;ldó flï l%u jeä Èhqkq lsÍu'

² m,sfndaO fh§fï§ wkq.ukh lrk l%ufõo ksid jD;a;sh mqyqKqj ,;a mqoa.,hkaf.a iyh ,nd §u'

² foaYSh jYfhka ksIamdokh lrk ldnksl m<sfndaOkdYl m%j¾Okh lsÍu

² j.djg ydks lrk i;=rka fjkqfjka iajNdúl i;=rka fhdod .ekSu'


fld<U úYajúoHd,fha ffjoH

mSGfha uydpd¾h iy uyck fi!LH

ms<sn|j wdishdkq meis*sla wOHhk

ixiofha Wm iNdm;s

uydpd¾h bkaÈl lreKd;s,l


fmardfoKsh úYajúoHd,fha

uydpd¾h wd¾' tia O¾u;s,l


reyqK úYajúoHd,fha úY%dñl
wdpd¾h ,hk,a kq.,shoao


mqkHd pdkaokS o is,ajd